This tutorial is long due, I took most of the pictures two years ago so when I decided to redo the skirt on my trossfrau dress a couple of weeks ago I took the last pictures for the tutorial.

Kampfrau dress - 1
Start out by cutting the shell fabric, I have a blue wool fabric that is slightly fulled. The back piece is cut on fold, but not the front piece, as it will open in front.

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The pattern is without seam allowances as you can see, I choose to have 1,5 cm seam allowance everywhere except the neckline and centre front, there the seam allowance is 1cm.

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The I cut my linen lining, I use my shell fabric as pattern pieces in stead of the paper patter, it lays better on the pattern and you can just cut them the same size, no measuring seam allowances a second time.

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Put the shell fabric and lining wrong sides together.

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Baste the two layers together, they will now be treated as one piece of fabric.

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Put the pieces right sides together and pin the shoulder and sides seams together, I have made a sewing line with a pen so that my stitches will be straight, these lines will never be seen so no need to use any special pens.

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I sew the shoulder and side seams with backstitches using waxed linen thread, as this is a tight garment so it is important that the seams hold up.

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Before sewing all the way down to the hem I cut away some of the lining, this is so that when the bodice is hemmed the lining won’t peak out.

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Then I take away the basting on the shoulder seams and side seams.

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The lining is cut down in all the seam allowances in side seams and shoulder seams, to make the seams less bulky and to make sure that the lining won’t peak out when the seams are felled.

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I press my seams flat with my iron and then I trim the seam allowances down to 1cm. You can start with smaller seam allowances from the start, but by cutting them at this stage you can mask if you have not sewn 100% straight. I think this make the seam allowances look cleaner especially if you have a fabric that is prone to fraying.

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Then I cast the seam allowances down, I use a filler thread because it is pretty and it keep the edge from fraying. To be honest the use of filler threads like this is something that might not be 100% historically accurate, the use of filler threads have been found on the garments from Greenland, but the findings is from the necklines only. But I do this anyway, as I find it historically plausible and pretty, but I wanted to make clear that it might not be correct.

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But it is so pretty!

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Take care when casting down the seam allowances to not go through the shell fabric, as I have done here, red might not have been the best choice of colour.

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I do the same on the shoulder seams.

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Then I cut out the fabric for my guards. The width is you choice, there are a lot of variation in the pictures, but they are all fairly wide. I have also added 1cm seam allowance on both sides.
I cut them longer then I really need, to have some fabric to work with.

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I press in the seam allowance on one side.

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Then put the guard right sides together with the front opening, make sure that you the guard is sticking out in the top and bottom.

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Mark the top of.

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Then put the strip from the bottom of the neckline in the front.

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Mark the corners on both strips.

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Draw diagonal lines on both strips connecting one corner to another.

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That line is the seam line, I add 0,5cm seam allowance.

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I always number my pieces to make sure that I know where they are supposed to go.

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Then I keep doing the same thing for the whole neckline. Putting the strips right sides to the bodice, marking the corners, drawing seam lines and adding seam allowance.

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Do this for the whole neckline and front openings.

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I sew them together in the right order using running stitches and silk thread, the reason for not using back stitches is that these go faster and on this seam there will be no stress so the strength if the back stitch is not needed. It is important to use the seams wisely. You are hand sewing this thing so why waste time by using a stitch that is unnecessary, time that can be better used doing other nice things.

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I sew only to the pressed fold of the seam allowance, not all the way down.

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In some of the corners you need to make some cuts and to cut away some material to make the guards lay flat when you press the seams down.

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When the seams of the guard is pressed you put it right side to the lining of the bodice.

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I have marked out my seam allowance on the neckline and centre front; 1cm with a tailors chalk.

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Then I sew the guards to the bodice using running stitches with waxed linen thread, make smaller stitches or even back stitches in the corners.

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Then I trim down the corners to make them less bulky.

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I take away the basing thread in the neckline.

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I also cut away like this, to make it possible to turn the guards and make the corners nice and neat.

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I trim down the seam allowances all around the front and neckline. The shell fabric is shortest, the guards are longest and the lining is in between.

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Turn the guards around and press the edges, make sure that the black is visible from the lining side, this is to make sure that the lining fabric will not peak over the edge when the dress is worn.

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Pin the guards down.

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Now we take a break from the bodice and make lacing strips. They are made from the same linen as the lining, folded so that you fold the raw edges inside so that the whole strip have four layers of fabric. As you can see the lacing holes are for spiral lacing, that is the most common lacing type in the 16th century.

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I sew a line of running stitches on one side of where I want my boning.

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Then I make my lacing holes, the next pictures are taken from another project, as I forgot to take pictures. I start of by punching holes in the fabric with the smallest setting. I sew them with button hole stitch, as this is a period correct way to do both buttonholes and lacing holes. The knots on the buttonhole stitch makes the lacing holes and button holes more even and it protect the edge. Each stitch is a knot and that means that when the buttonhole or lacing hole gets a lot of wear so that it actually wears of threads the rest of the buttonhole will be intact. If you don’t have the knots the entire buttonhole might unravel.

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Then I widen the holes using my bone tool, I know a lot of people use knitting needles for this work, I made this bone tool to polish the edges of punched holes in leather, but it is perfect for making lacing holes as well.

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Make a hole as big as you want.

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Thread a needle with waxed linen tread and make a knot at the end. I put the needle in a bit away from the hole and come up about 4mm from it.

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Pull the thread through.

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Put the needle through the hole and up through the fabric again, at the same distance from the hole as last time.

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As you pull the tread you will see the loop that is forming.

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Put the tread on the left side of the loop, and then take the needle through the loop from behind. It is important that you put the tread on the left and come through from behind, this is what makes the knot on the thread.

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Pull the tread, see in what direction I am pulling the tread, this makes the knot end up at the edge of the hole. You can pull it so that it comes more up on the edge or even more inside the hole depending on how you pull the thread. It is a matter of taste where you place the knot.

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Do the same again and you will see that row of knots form like a pearl bracelet!

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After some stitches I like to use my bone tool again, when you sew lacing holes it tends to shrink as you work. Doing this makes the hole bigger, you can get a lot more stitches in and the lacing hole itself gets stiff from all the stitches, no need to reinforce with metal rings at all.

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Then you keep stitching until you come all the way round to your first stitch.

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Here I go through the treads between the first and the second knot.

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And then down to the backside. Doing this will make sure that there is a solid ring without gaps.

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I secure the thread on the backside.

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Take the needle through the layers and then up again.This is so that the end of the tread will not be visible. And if you cut the tread of just where you secured it the knot will unravel, having a cm of thread left will keep the knot secure.

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Cut the knot of on the front and the tread of the back.

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And then you do it all over again, and again and again.

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Then I pin the lacing strip to the bodice about 0,5 cm from the centre front edge.

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Then I attach the lacing stitch with backstitches, through all the layers except the guards. This line of stitches forms the boning channel.

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See how clever it is, the seam is totally hidden by the guards.

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Here is where I stray from period correctness, I use a modern crinoline steel to help my lacing out. I guess the period correct version would be to use reed as you use in 18th century stays.

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I secure the top and bottom with extra tiny stitches.

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Now I sew the guards down, I sew with silk thread and with these stitches that makes the seam invisible.

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Then I trim of the end of the lacing strip.

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I trim some of the lining of to make sure that it won’t peak out when the bodice is hemmed.

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Then I fold 1,5 cm up and press the hem, I trim some off just at my lacing panel.

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Then I sewing it the hem down with small stitches.

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Then I pull away the basting thread at the hem.

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All clean and pretty, but not done yet! My floor is not so clean ;) I have the habit of throwing scraps and treads on the floor, it is quicker for me that way, to cleat it all in one go.

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This is how it looks so far.

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Now lace it up with a scrap string.

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Put needles in between the lacing, this is to prevent the lacing from gaping.

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Secure with stitches.

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Now on to sleeves, this tutorial comes with a pattern of a simple s-sleeve but here you can see my fancy sleeve that is a adapted version of the s-sleeve.

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I sew the sleeve together using back stitches, and then I sew it into the bodice also using back stitches.
The sleeve head have added 3 cm of ease, the sleeve is 3 to big for the bodice arm holes. This is to make a pretty sleeve and those 3 cm is distributed at the top of the sleeve around the shoulder seam. It is not supposed to be a puffy sleeve, done correctly you will have no small pleats or ruffles in the seam. for wool 3 cm of ease is not that much is you sew in linen it will be harder to fit the sleeve.

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Here you see the ease, but where the seam is there is no pleats or ruffles. To make a pretty sleeve this ease must be pressed down.

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I put it on my tailors ham and add water.

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then I gently start to work the ease down. You will have to go easy to not press the ease into pleats. Add more water when you fell that is is dry and press until flat.

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Here we see before and after, insane difference, this is why wool is awesome!

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Now I trim down my seam allowance in the sleeves to 1 cm.

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Then I cast the edges of all the layers together, this is all the finishing I will do on this edge, binding it would make it to bulky, but this is enough to keep it nice and together.
Remove all the basting threads left on the bodice.

Now on to the skirt, unfortunately when I took the photos I decided not to show you how to attach the skirt as I wore it as a separate piece. But is is much more period correct to have the skirt and bodice sewn together so when I decided to renovate my kampfrau dress and attach the skirt I took photos of that. But that means that I have no photos of how to sew the skirt part together.

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But it is very easy. My skirt is made up by three widths of fabric sewn together with running stitches and then the seams are felled. In one seam there is a opening so that you can get in and out of the dress.
I choose three widths of fabric to make it wide enough in relation to my body. I am big, and to make the hem look on me as it does on the women in the woodcuts, to make the pleats as deep ad they need to be I needed three widths of fabric. If you are smaller you will do fine with less and it personal preference. I already have a good trossfrau body, round hips, small waist and big breast but I you need more hips the extra fabric will help you out. I like to joke and say I was built to for 16th century German fashion ;)

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I have quite the wide hem on the skirt, this helps to hold it out in shape.

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The slit in front, here you can see my stitching before I started tailoring school, sooo big stitches ;)

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I have two rows of guards on the skirt, the cut-out is inspired by a woodcut, some people have puffs of silk coming out of these slashes, I wanted mine to be simple. I have also sewn down the slashes onto the skirt in stead of only hemming them. After a few incidents of getting stuck on low objects and benches and ripping the slashes or at some times part of the whole guard of the dress I decided to make it more secure.

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On the top of the skirt I fold down 3 cm. This is because I want to make the cartridge pleating in double fabric, to make the pleats even fuller.

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Using my smock guide I mark out two lines of dots that are 1 cm from each other and 1 cm from the edge.

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Like this

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Then I divide the skirt into four parts, this is to make gathering the skirt even easier, I make marks with some thread.

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Then I sew the gathering treads, down one dot up at the next.

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At the slit I sew the edges of the fold and the skirt together.

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I sew two lines of gathering stitches that I secure in one end.

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Then I pull the treads, look at the pretty cartridge pleating.

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I also mark the bodice in four equal parts.

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Then I put the markings at the skirt to the markings on the bodice right sides together.

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Now it is easy to gather the skirt evenly, put some pins as I go along.

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Then I stitch the skirt to the bodice. I do it with two stitches at each pleat, to make it strait.
Also the skirt is kind of heavy and these stitches need to be able to hold that weight.

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Look all neat and nice, I love cartridge pleats!

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This is how it looks at the front opening.

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When you are finished with the seam you can pull the gathering treads out.

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As you can see the cartridge pleats “stands open” inside the dress, this gives you the extra hip boost that will give you the correct 16th century hips, and for us that already have 16th century hips naturally; we get the superfrauhips! More hips is good, the German ladies all seems to have a lot of them.

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And now, you are actually DONE! With the dress that is, the list of stuff you need now is long, this is why the frau never gets boring. It is easy to give one dress many looks by simply changing the chemise, the veil or the size of you wulsthaube. Throwing on another hat, getting a fancy new gollar. I have tutorial for most of the trossfrau details in my tutorial list

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Here is the pattern.
It is in cm as always and made for me.
Bust: 118cm
Waist: 94cm

Remember to do a mock-up before cutting into the real fabric.

Kampfrau dress - pattern front
Kampfrau dress - pattern back
Kampfrau dress - pattern sleeve

After spending lots of hours of smocking, you wear your fancy new smocked garment on a event, afterwards you throw it in the washing machine.

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And it comes out looking all wonky and not at all that crisp and nice.
But there is no need to worry, resetting is easy, it just takes some time if you only have a ordinary ironing board.

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You need lots of pins for this, star of by pinning on the edge.

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Pin at every stitch for as long as your ironing board or garment allows.

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Then you pull the fabric under each stitch, see, now you can see the crispness again, and then you put a pin.

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Lots of pins, you need to have these without heads, as we are going to apply heat to them later on.

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If you do not have a iron with steam, you take a piece of fabric, I use a linen kitchen towel and make it really wet in one end, Use a old washed fabric to prevent excess colour from staining your work. Squeeze out some of the water.

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Lay the wet part of the towel over the smock.

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Then really lightly touch the towel with the iron just where your smock is. Do not apply any pressure, you only want the heat. The towel should now do a sizzling noise, the water turning into steam. If you happen to have a steam iron, you can just use a dry towel and then hold it over the towel and use lots of steam on the smock.

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Now take the towel away and wait for it to cool down and dry completely. If you have a vacuum ironing board this takes you no time, but for us without it can take several hours.

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I do the sleeve on the sleeve board.

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And this is how it turn out after cooling down, as good as new or perhaps even crisper. Now you can move on the the newt part of your garment and work your way around the whole smock, just to the same thing all over again.

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Here is a smocked apron that I have done the same thing to.

And now you can go out, wear it at en event, throw it in the washing machine and then do it all again ;)

Surfing the net a million years ago, before I started with all the medieval stings I did do a lot of looking at other peoples work, wishing that I would find the courage to staring doing it myself.
Then I found this webpage with all of the fantastical reproductions. He had a photo of a extant medieval pouch from Norway that looked like no other purse I had seen. So when it came to me making my own money pouch a couple of years ago I knew I wanted to make that kind of purse. It says that the pouch is from late 13th to early 14th century but as money pouches does not differ that much and in “purses in pieces” Olaf Goubitz writes that the circular cut pouch is the most common type of coin purse in medieval times and that the use of them continues at any rate into the 20th century.

I have made my purse slightly smaller then the reproduction I was inspired by but as I girl I guess I have smaller hands and I did not want to have a too large pouch anyway.

I start of by cutting the leather out, you need the circular piece and also you need two long thin strips one that is 50 cm long and one that is 65 cm long, I made both mine 1 cm wide but to make it look even more as the extant purse you could cut them thinner. I have used a piece of a old leather jacker, but any soft leather will do fine.

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In my paper guide I have punched holes, these I use to transfer the markings for the holes on the leather. I use a regular drawing pencil that I wet slightly, it gives just enough marks and is something I had lying around at home. You are cutting the dots of so you can use anything to make your markings with.

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Then I punch all the holes out.

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Take the longer leather strip and make it pointy in one end.

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Start threading it through the holes.

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All the way around

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I round the other end of the strip of and cut a hole in the middle.

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The pointy end goes through.

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Pull your pouch together a bit.

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As much as you want to have it open when it is finished.

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Thread the pointy end on a big blunt needle.

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Now we are going to do the nice wrapping around the purse.

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Continue around the purse and make sure that the strip of leather lies nicely and evenly around the first round of the strip.

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I did not my strip long enough, but you can easily make it longer like this, make sure that the joint end up on the “backside”, this will make it invisible.

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Then when you have sewn all around the pouch.

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Take the needle and go down the hole.

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See, it looks like it continues all around.

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Now you have the rest of the strip on the inside.

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Cut it of a bit and split it in half.

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Thread one end on the needle and go under the inside strip.

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Make a knot and cut of the excess.

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Then take the other strip of the leather, make one side pointy and thread it through the top holes.

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Go all the way around.

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And knot the ends.

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And now the purse if finished!

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The pattern is in cm, as always.

Good luck!

After wearing a dainty little hat with my frau for two years my friends and I decided that this year for medieval week we would make ourselfs new hats, huge hats!
This construction is guesswork, I have no real knowledge on hat making, especially not 16th century hats, but I try, and if it in the end looks looks the paintings that it is nice.

I based my hat on several woodcuts and this style of had is also worn by the Landsknechte.

A man on his horse
A woman with her dog
One other woman with this kind of huge hat

The pictures and several other huge hats worn by both frau and Landsknechte can be found at my pinterest; http://pinterest.com/katafalk/huge-hats-landsknecht-and-frau

My small hat is made in the exact same way, but smaller and for that project I bought a big macramé hoop at a second hand store as the base for the hat. For this hat a bigger hoop of similar type would have been ideal and my first thought was to ask a blacksmith friend of mine to help me to solder a thick wire together. But my friend had to much other things on his list so I was as usual left to my own devices and I started to look at my box of thin wire. I made a hoop skirt out of wire of this type once for a post apocalypse party by twisting lengths together to make a thicker tread and it worked for that so I had to try it. I do like when I can make things myself.

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So twisting thin wire together I made a hoop as big as I wanted.

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Then I took a piece of wool fabric that when sewn together was slightly smaller then the circumference of the hoop, you want it to sit tight around the hoop. The width of the fabric needs to be shorter then the radius *2 to make it sit on your head and to make the fabric sit tightly in the hoop.

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Sew the fabric together, I used scraps so I have sewn it at two places.

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Put the hoop in your fabric tube.

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Put the wrong sides of the fabric together and gather the double fabric using a strong thread and big stitches.

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Sew all around the inside of the hoop gathering the fabric and making it sit tightly around the hoop. Pull it tight and secure the threads.

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If you use the same length of all your stitches the gathering will look even and nice.

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Then cut two circles that covers the hole in the middle, one is for the top of the hat and the other is for the underside.

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I cut decorative slashes in the top circle, using a wool that matches my dress to put under, I cut the blue wool the size of the finished top circle, this makes it easy to pin the seam allowances under.

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Then I pin the top circle to the hat and sew it with big stitches, one in each “pleat”.

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Do the same to the underside.

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Then I attached some linen ties so that I could tie it onto my head.

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Now it is time for feathers!

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I simply put the feathers into the folds of the pleats. I do not fasten them in any way they stay put anyway.

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I put them all around my hat. When I was at medieval week a whole bunch of people told me that when they had been at a event in Germany the German reenactors had told them that the way that most of them wears their feathers, on one side of the hat facing back away from the face was not the way that the German Landsknechte was wearing them, but that the way to wear them was all around the hat, as I have mine. It is always nice to hear that your hat is considered “right”, but then I have based my hat on several woodcuts so I knew that the look was “safe”.

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Now it is finished but I want to have some shape to not look like a big pizza on my head so I bent it slightly over my leg

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And this is how it turned out, at first I did not know if this hat was for me. It is so big and loud and feathery, but I decided that I kind of liked it and after medieval week I am now sure that I like it!

Lengberg Castle brassiere

From the first time I saw the Lengberg Castle underwear I knew that I would want to make something similar. Having big breasts complicates things, I would prefer not to wear modern bras with my medieval clothes. But there is no chance that I can get away with not wearing anything at all. The fitted front dresses might work, but I prefer to use ease in my garments and I am not all that fond of the shape my breasts would get in that kind of fitted underwear.

So the Lengberg Castle brassiere was perfect, it is just like a modern bra, but with more coverage and in linen.

There are quite a few interesting articles on the net already, you should check them out in stead of me trying to communicate what they are about.

Medieval supportive underwear at Medieval Silkwork
Supportive underwear in written sources at Medieval Silkwork
About medieval bra(shirt)s and other underwear by Isis Sturtewagen
The “Invention” of Needle-lace in East Tyrol? – University of Innsbruck

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I used a lot of needles and draped this pattern on my self wearing my regular bra. It is really hard to drape on yourself so I recommend that you get a friend to help you. But after a evening of contortionism I had a pattern.

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It might be the silliest looking pattern I have ever made.

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One of my favourite things to do is actually sewing eyelets, my brassiere have 6-7 at each side and is spiral laced.

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The lacing I used is lucet braided wool.

The result is this, the seams are made with felled seams that are placed on the outside, to make it as smooth as possible for the skin.
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Lengberg Castle brassiere - 9
Lengberg Castle brassiere - 10

It feels good to wear. I wore it for a full day in school and the only thing was that the bottom edge raised up under my bust but I will be attaching a skirt to and that might fix that problem. Also, My breast went kind of droopy with not as much lift as I am used to with my modern bra at the end of the day. But the linen I worked with is really thin and I will make a try with some sturdier linen and that might keep them up and happy all day. But it was really comfy even if they “sank” in height during the day.

This pattern is made after my body, so a mock up is very important. But I thought that there is always nice to see how the pattern looks, as a starting point for your own pattern.
I wear a European size 80H according to the label in my bra that is a 95H in France and 36H in UK, sorry you US ladies but I have no idea what that translates to. But my body measurements are: Bust 120cm and underbust 96cm.
As usual my pattern diagrams are in cm

Lengberg Castle brassiere front
Lengberg Castle brassiere back
Lengberg Castle brassiere cups

My other posts about the Lengberg Castle brassiere.

Lengberg Castle brassiere – It works
Lengberg Castle brassiere – comparison

Last medieval week I ran around with a plastic bottle in my bag, since drinking water is important but plastic bottles are not all that fun I decided to make a leather bottle in stead.

Looking around there is two options, the bottle looking kind and the one that looks like a small barrel. As I do both medieval and 16 century stuff I wanted a bottle that I could use for both. Leather costrels seems to have been around forever, a quick google search found me both museum pictures of costrels from the late 1300 and from 1500 and they were in use at least up until the 18th century.

I also found a picture of huntsmen with costrels.

So I decided on a costrel, I like the idea that it could easily be made so that it would stand on its on to. I looked around at different techniques, some people use wooden moulds but I don’t want to bother with mould making so I went with the sand version. Haandkrafts beautiful costrel gave me lots of help figuring out how to actually make one.
I chose to take away some of the layers that he used, and it worked fine anyway.

leather costrel - pattern
Here is the pattern for it, it is in cm and I made one difference from my original costrel, it is only that the outer seam allowance is 0,5cm in stead of 1cm on the sides. There is no difference in function only the look. You need to use vegetable tanned leather for this project. Chrome tanned leather is never healthy, especially not if you use it for storing water that you want to drink. I worked with 3mm thick leather and found that it was perfect thickness for me. This costrel holds 9 dl of water or any other liquid.

leather costrel 1
leather costrel 2
Using an awl I made all the holes for the main part. I do not make any holes in the sides, they will be made as we go along with the sewing. Make sure that the holes in the top part matches, count them and make sure, you are sewing these together so they need to be the same amount and at the same places.

leather costrel 3
I have also prepared for the decoration, using a knife I have cut the decoration into the leather, but only 1mm deep. Mu decoration is based on this costrel but with my initials on it.

leather costrel 4
I started with sewing to top together, I use blunt needles and waxed flax thread.

leather costrel 5
leather costrel 6
Making it look like a small leather tent.

leather costrel 7
leather costrel 8
leather costrel 9
Take one side piece and wet the edges shape it with your hands, you might want to take some of the corners of, but don not cut away to much, it might cause the corstel to leak.

leather costrel 10
I have marked out where the top and bottom are supposed to be, so put the side piece into the “tent”. As I have not made any holes in the side piece, you will need to make these as you go along. Just put your awl in one of the holes in the main bottle piece and push it through the side piece as well, but watch your fingers.

leather costrel 11
I start in the centre bottom, with the seam that is farthest from the edge. I sew it from the middle to the top on both sides. I don’t knot any threads, I fasten them by making them overlap by three stitches.

leather costrel 12
I try to not end in the centre top, it is tricky to sew there anyway so I fasten the seams by overlapping a bit down on the sides as you can see it you look closely on this picture.
Sew the other seam, closest to the edge and sew the other side on. It is important to have two seams , it will make you costrel less prone to leaking.

Cut out holes for carrying straps.

Now submerge your half finished costrel in lukewarm water and let it stay there for at least some hours. Then you can force the leather to make the opening, my pattern will give you a opening that is just so wide that you can use a cut of plastic bottle as a funnel. It is also a width of opening that we are all used to. The water will come out just as well as from a ordinary water bottle.

Now you stuff it full of sand. Pour first dry sand into it. When it is full, add some water. Then you continue to stuff it with sand until it can not take no more and feels solid.

leather costrel 13
leather costrel 14
leather costrel 15
leather costrel 16
Now you can make the pattern if you want to, you will feel if the leather is to wet, then the pattern will not be as distinct. If this is the case, wait a day or so and try again.
I use a modelling tool for leather but you don’t really need any special tools, use what you have around you, a nice rounded stick, a fork to make a pattern with.
I don’t have any leather stamps so I used a edge cutter to make the dotted pattern.

leather costrel 17
One side done, one to go!

Now let your costrel sit and dry, this might take some time. I put mine in a sunny window and it helps to pour out sand as you go along.

When it is completely dry and all the sand is removed it is time to pour wax into it.
I used beeswax. Melt it carefully, get a old sauce pan from the thrift shop since the pan you use will forever be your bees wax pan.
Pour the warm wax into the bottle (wax is WARM so use caution) you should fill it at least until it is half full. Put a cork into it and move the wax around and make sure to cover all of the inside, it is easy to miss so make sure that the ceiling of the costrel is covered.
When you have done this you can pour the wax out again, pour small amounts into moulds made of of old plastic cups and you will have sewing wax for later. and it is easier to melt if you need more wax some other time.

Some fill the bottle completely with wax and put it in the oven on low heat, then they remove it when they see the wax seeping through on the outside of the bottle.

Now you can test your bottle by simply pouring water into it. You will quickly see if you need to redo the waxing part.
leather costrel 18
leather costrel 19
I coloured my costrel with modern leather dye. and this is how it turned out.
I added a carrying straps to be able to put it on my belt. I also carried it a lot as a small silly handbag ;)

leather costrel 20
leather costrel 21
A kind of a toggle lock, for quick removal from the belt.

leather costrel 23
leather costrel 22
A wooden cork attached with a thinner leather string.

It was SO useful to be able to carry around water with me the whole week without any problems, just remember to store it without the cork in to prevent it from moulding.
The first day of use the water tasted very much of honey, it might had been nice it if the water had been something else then sun warm ;)

Happy new year!
I start my new year with a tutorial on how I made my wulsthaube.

My wulsthaube is in one piece, I love that it is so simple to put on, I can even do it without a mirror (or running uphill the streets of Visby to attend 100 landsknecht march as I did 2011 medieval week), not pinning and tugging at a piece of fabric in the morning.
As I always wear a steuchlein my wulsthaube is never visible.

wulsthaube tutorial - 1
You start out with making a fabric roll. Mine is made out of a piece of linen that is 16cm wide and 44 cm long. It is cut on the bias and when it is sewn together it is stuffed with wool. You can use whatever stuffing you want to and I have also read about people using wicker wreaths padded with fabric for their wulst, I guess that it would be a good lightweight option if you want to do a super size wulsthaube.

wulsthaube tutorial - 2
Then I take a piece of fabric, I used a old linen panel curtain found thrift shopping. The size is based on the size of your wulst and it is not 100% important as you are draping your wulsthaube. I think that my fabric was somewhere between 65-85 cm long and and 50-60 cm wide. The linen is cut straight on grain so that the front will not stretch. you can also cut it on the bias to make it drape over the wulst better, but then you will need to add a strip of fabric in the front that is on straight grain before putting it on to keep the front solid.

wulsthaube tutorial - 3
I pin it in the nape of my neck (I look kind of aggressive in this picture, angryfrau!)

wulsthaube tutorial - 4
wulsthaube tutorial - 5
Put the fabric over your head.

wulsthaube tutorial - 6
wulsthaube tutorial - 7
And add the wulst.

wulsthaube tutorial - 8
wulsthaube tutorial - 9
I start with pinning it at the centre top.

wulsthaube tutorial - 10
Then I pull the fabric taut over the wulsthaube pinning it as I go along.

wulsthaube tutorial - 11
wulsthaube tutorial - 12
wulsthaube tutorial - 13
Now you are ready to start draping.
You can do this while wearing it with the help of mirrors, having a friend wear it or as I do it, putting it on a doll.

wulsthaube tutorial - 14
wulsthaube tutorial - 15
Remember to put pins where you pinned it at the nape of your neck.

wulsthaube tutorial - 16
Put it on your trusty helper.

wulsthaube tutorial - 17
And start draping.

wulsthaube tutorial - 18
As you go along you can cut away some of the fabric that is hidden by the pleats, it only adds unnecessary bulk.

wulsthaube tutorial - 19
wulsthaube tutorial - 20
When draping it you can decide what shape you want it to have by pulling the fabric taut in the back.

wulsthaube tutorial - 21
wulsthaube tutorial - 22
Here you can see that I have cut away some on the inside.
But you don not want to cut it all away, as you will notice in a few step. You will need a flap to cover the raw edges in the front.
My wulst looks kind of gross, but that is what happens if you use wool that is not properly washed. You smell slightly of sheep and the wool geese leaves stains. I recommend using washed wool! ;)

wulsthaube tutorial - 23
In my finished wulsthaube, I don’t want the ends to meet in my neck, I want some space to be able to put it on tightly and the linen will probably stretch some with use.
So I remove some cm in the neck and put new pins. The pin to the right is the old pin, and the new pin is to the left.

wulsthaube tutorial - 24
wulsthaube tutorial - 25
Then I cut away the excess and pin a nice hem.

wulsthaube tutorial - 26
wulsthaube tutorial - 27
wulsthaube tutorial - 28
Lots of pins! I want to sew the pleats down to make them stay in place, make sure to catch more then just the outer layer of fabric. I do the same on the inside, to make it look neat.

wulsthaube tutorial - 29
As you see here I have only sewn the pleats down for about 5cm

wulsthaube tutorial - 30
A flap have been naturally shaped on the inside by the draping, sew down the side of it.

wulsthaube tutorial - 31
Cut away excess fabric.

wulsthaube tutorial - 32
Hem the edges you pinned a few steps before.

wulsthaube tutorial - 33
It is now time to fix the finishing on the outside in the back.
See the flap, make sure that it is moderately the same width all along.

wulsthaube tutorial - 34
Fold it to the font and put some pins.

wulsthaube tutorial - 35
Trim it down and fold under the raw edges.

wulsthaube tutorial - 36
Sew it in place.

wulsthaube tutorial - 37
I then add a band around the head, it is cut straight on grain and is as wide as you like. Mine is 2cm wide and just as long so that I can pin or tie it.

wulsthaube tutorial - 38
And then it is finished!
I might had wanted to have the square lower in the neck, my other wulsthaube is like that. But as it is always covered with a steuchlein that is not really a problem.

wulsthaube tutorial - 39
wulsthaube tutorial - 40
wulsthaube tutorial - 41
wulsthaube tutorial - 42
wulsthaube tutorial - 43
wulsthaube tutorial - 44
wulsthaube tutorial - 45
I usually baste my wulst with big stitches to the haube, so that I can take it out and throw the haube in the washing machine after events. But you can also pin it if you want to.

So I have spoken about my new kampfrau chemise/shirt/blouse, and I have also documented the whole process of making it so that I can show you how it is made.

This hemd goes under the name of “silly eternity hemd” because it have a rather silly amount of fabric in it, and a equally silly high collar with a ridiculous tight smock, and it really have taken an eternity to sew.
I like things silly, especially with my kampfrau, and I love to work a long time on things, but I have to admit that it might be a bit to much to have 4,5 meters of fabric smocked into the collar.
It is in a thin linen fabric from medeltidsmode.se and is sewn with silk thread.
The seam allowances are felled and when done they are only 0,5 cm wide.
The embroidery is in linen thread.

Print
So here is the pattern, it is in cm and not inches.
I am using the width of the fabric, using one width for the front, one for the back and half a width for each sleeve. Using 3 meters gives you enough fabric for these pieces, the sleeve gusset and for lining the collar and end of the sleeves.
In centre front, we have a slit that is cut open.
As said, to use 150cm to the font and the back might be a bit to much, so if you want to using half a fabric width, 75 cm that will turn out as a nice hemd that to.

Hemd 2
When I work in linen fabric, I like to pull threads. This ensures that I cut 100% on the grain.
Using a big needle, I pull up one thread.

Hemd 3
Pulling it out until it breaks.

Hemd 4
Hemd 5
When it breaks, you just use the needle to pull it out again and then when you have gone the full width of the fabric it will look like this.

Hemd 6
And now you can cut your fabric.

Hemd 7
Voila! 100% straight on the grain.

Print
Print
Now it is time to start sewing. You need to sew your pieces together before you smock. I have a seam allowance of 1 cm.
As you can see in this picture, you need to sew your pieces together so that they form a “tube”. Sew only down to the X mark, witch is in my hemd 31 cm down. My hemd is rather tight fitting around the armcycle, and this measurement decides this. For a looser fit you need to sew longer. Or if you are smaller you might need to have this distance shorter if you want the tighter fit. You can if you want sew just as much as you need for the smocking (15cm) and then when the smock is finished, put it over your head and pin with needles so that it fits right here.
The blue in this picture shows where my smocking is going to be.

Hemd 10
Of course I forgot to take photos of how I sewed it together, but I have these stand in pictures to show you how I sew a felled seam. It is important that the finished seam is not wider then your smock pleats, or else it will look funny and you will see the seam in your smocked collar. As my smock pleats are 0,5cm therefore my finished seam is 0,5 so that it blends in. Therefore I start out with a 1 cm seam allowance.
I sew with running stitches as there is no strain on this seam and we are also felling it witch means that it will be stronger because of that.

Hemd 11
Then I scrape the seam open with my bone tool, this is a period way of getting flat seams with out ironing them, and linen takes this treatment fabulously.

Hemd 12
Then I cut down the seam allowance on one side.

Hemd 13
Folds the other sides seam allowance in half, here I use a fingernail to scrape it down.

Hemd 14
Fold the whole thing to one side, scraping it a bit with my bone tool to make it lie flat.

Hemd 15
And then I sew it down. And that is how I make my felled seams.

Hemd 16
So let me introduce my bone tool, it is made as you all can guess out of bone. Moose bone to be exact. I have made it myself and I originally use it when working with leather, polishing the edges among other things.
But when I was reading in “Woven into the Earth: Textile finds in Norse Greenland” by Else Ostergaard there was information about tools found that was connected with textile working (pages 111-115). Among the tools were the “seam smoothers” that were used to make the seams flat. They could be made out of every kind of material, wood, bone, stone, glass, horn, it even says something about a pigs tooth.
So I thought that “well I need to try it” and said and done, and now I use my bone tool with all my linen fabric. So nice not having to use the iron all the time, especially with small seams and narrow seam allowances that you end up burning your fingertips of while working with.
But now, lets continue on our hemd.

Hemd 17
Now it is time to hem the top of your hemd, that will become your collar.
I pull a thread at 1 cm and make a double fold.

Hemd 18
Like this, here you can see my felled seam.

Hemd 19
Now we are going to make a dotted grid for the smocking. I have made a guide out of thin cardboard, this saves so much time! I am going to dot each cm with one cm between each row.
I am dotting 10 rows.

Hemd 20
Hemd 21
It is just to put it along with the hemmed edge and with a pen make a dot using the grid, This takes almost forever, remember to sharpen your pen now and then.
Yes that is about 4500 dots… yes you are crazy for doing this ;)

Hemd 22
Here you can see that I have also hemmed the slit in the front. (or at least one side of it).

Hemd 23
The end of the slit is hard to hem in a good way, and it is also a place that have a lot of strain on it. So I finished it of with some buttonhole stitches to cover the raw edge and then some stitches across to make it durable. And it is pretty to.

Hemd 24
Now it is time to sew your gathering stitches. I use a regular polyester thread in a bright colour, so that I remember to take it away later. I sew with a long double thread and pick up a few threads at each dot.

Hemd 25
Sew all the lines.

Hemd 26
Then gather your fabric and tie it of when you have gathered it to your neck circumference + some ease. Hold a measuring tape against your neck to know what you want ( mine is 44cm ).

Hemd 27
Really dense smocked fabric, ridiculously dense.

Hemd 28
Now I baste some guide threads on the front, to help me with my embroidery. They are 1cm apart.

Hemd 29
I start my embroidering with this, along the whole collar, to keep it together.

Hemd 30
Like this

Hemd 31
Then I want to have these.

And this is how you sew that stitch. If you reverse it you can sew a diamond.
Hemd 32
Hemd 33
Hemd 34
Hemd 35
Hemd 36
Hemd 37
Hemd 38

Hemd 39
And this is how it ended up, with decorative dots in the middle. And in the bottom is honeycomb stitch.

This is how you sew it.
Hemd 40
Hemd 41
Hemd 42
Hemd 43
Hemd 44
Hemd 45
Hemd 46
Hemd 47

Hemd 48
to get to the next row, skip one row.

Hemd 49
Now you just continue on like before.

Hemd 50
This is how my backside looks.

Hemd 51
And the finished front.

Hemd 52
Then it is time to line your collar. My lining is a strip of fabric that is 5cm wide finished width, and as long as my neck circumference, the measurement that we tied of the threads on.

Hemd 53
When sewing it on, be sure to catch each fold to sew it to the lining.

Hemd 54
This makes sure that your smock stays put and looks pretty.
Do not sew the front shut before you cut the thread knots of, that will make it hard do take them away.

Hemd 55
Now take your gathering threads away.

Hemd 56
And now your collar is done! I have a pearl closure.

Hemd 57
Pearls and thread loops.

Hemd 58
A close up of the hemmed slit.

Hemd 59
And the reinforcement again.

Hemd 60
Now you are going to sew the sleeve seam and the side seams. Put your hemd with your wrong sides together.

Print
And this is how you are supposed to sew. Leave 10 cm toward the X. This is were you are going to sew your sleeve gusset.

Hemd 62
Like this.

Hemd 63
Now sew your sleeve gusset.

Hemd 64
Like this.

Hemd 65
The sleeve gusset is also going t have felled seams, put it on your knee and it is easy to see when you work.

Hemd 66
Fell the seams on the sleeve and the side seam to. And hem the sleeves and the bottom hem.

Hemd 67
And now do the same thing to the sleeves as you did to the collar part. Make dots, sew dots, gather.
But here I gather against a bottle that have the same circumference as my hand. I don want to have a closure on my sleeve but I still need to be able to put it on.

Hemd 68
And do some honeycomb smocking.

Hemd 69
And then line it.

Hemd 70
Remember to not sew it shut before you remove your gathering thread.
Remove gathering threads and sew shut.

Hemd 71
Now it is done!

Hemd 72
Close up on the collar.

Hemd 73
Close up on bottom.

Hemd 74
This is where your first seam ends up in the end. Not visible at all when you are wearing it.

Hemd 75
Hemd 76
Close up on sleeve gusset.

Hemd 77
Hemd 78
Finished sleeve.

Hemd 79
Hemd 80
The inside of the sleeve.

Hemd 81
Back of hemd.

Hemd 82
Back of collar.

Hemd 83
How the honeycomb looks.

Hemd 84
Inside of collar.

Hemd 85
Ruffles on the collar.

Hemd 86
As an addition to the button closure I also have a hook in the bottom of the collar, to keep in shut better, it fastens in a loop on the other side.

Hemd 87
And then a picture of me wearing the shirt.
I hope you have found this tutorial helpful.

As always I give you, my inspiration for my kampfrau.
Really high collars
Schneider-n-Neterin
holbein noblewoman
BRONZINO, Agnolo 1530-32
Basel_Woman_Turned_to_the_Left_Costume_Study_by_Hans_Holbein_the_Younger1520
inspiration for hemd
meyer

And also one, where I got the inspiration for the pearl closure from.
HEEMSKERCK, Maerten van 1531

I thought that I would show you how I prefer to wear my steuchlein.

wearing my steuchlein - 1
I start with putting my wulsthaube on.

wearing my steuchlein - 2
Then I throw on the steuchlein

wearing my steuchlein - 3
Oops a bit of.

wearing my steuchlein - 4
It is nice to have that star so that I know it is on straight.

wearing my steuchlein - 5
Then I tie it in the back.

wearing my steuchlein - 6
Like this.

wearing my steuchlein - 7
I throw the tail to the front to make it easy to tie it.

wearing my steuchlein - 8
Finished

wearing my steuchlein - 9
If one wanted you could always use needles here in stead, to minimize bulk.

wearing my steuchlein - 10
Then I adjust the steuchlein over the wulsthaube

wearing my steuchlein - 11
Tighten it in the back

wearing my steuchlein - 12
Hold it in place with my left hand

wearing my steuchlein - 14
The other hand twist the tail part into a tight twist.

wearing my steuchlein - 14
When you have twisted for a while, you can let go of the left hand and use it to twist, it goes faster with two hands.

wearing my steuchlein - 15
Then I put the twisted tail over my head, holding the back in place

wearing my steuchlein - 16
Like this

wearing my steuchlein - 17
The twist goes around the head.
And is tucked under itself.

wearing my steuchlein - 18
Tada! like this. At this point I usually throw my hat with ostrich feathers on.
And this is how I wear my steuchlein and here is also a sneak peak of my new kampfrau blouse

As I am in the progress of making a new shirt to my kampfrau, I also needed a new steuchlein to wear over my wulsthaube since my old one is in raw silk just as my old shirt. And here is how I make my steuchlein complete with a pattern diagram.

steuchlein - pattern
So here is my pattern, I put the long side against the fold of the fabric and that is also the reason that my steuchlein is 150 cm long. I use the width of the fabric. In the end it is mostly like a liripipe pattern, but without the cape part.

steuchlein - cut and ready
I use a thin linen fabric from medeltidsmode.se and sew with silk thread, because I like it and I find that the linen thread I have is a bit to thick for this fabric.

steuchlein - end on tail
Start with hemming the end of the end of the tail, I cut my selvage away here, since I do not think it is that pretty and hemming with that gets so bulky. If you have nice selvage you can just ignore the hemming part and use the selvage as it is instead.

steuchlein - small running stithces
Then I sew the long seam that forms the tail part. I sew with small running stitches, using backstitch here is in my eyes just a waste of time since there is not any strain on this seam. Running stitches will work just as good.

steuchlein - scraping seams
Then I scrape the seams so that they lie flat. This is a period way of getting your seams smooth without ironing them. This is a bone tool that I use when I work with leather, but you can use whatever you like tree, bone your fingernails. I use my fingernails when I scrape my hems.

steuchlein - at tail
In the end of the tail, I fold in the raw edges and sew a bit. So that no loose threads will poke out.

steuchlein - felled seams to here
steuchlein - felled seams
Then I fell the seams. Not all the way since most of the seam allowances is in the tail part so that felling those would be a waste of time since they do not get any wear or is ever seen. The fabric is also cut slightly on bias here, so the edges will not really fray here anyway.

steuchlein - hem at bottom
Then I hem the bottom part. As you can see here, when working in linen fabric I like to pull out threads to know where my fold lines are. This ensures that the edges are 100% on straight grain.

steuchlein - double folded hem
My hems are double folded and when finished 0,5 cm wide, thin and nice.

steuchlein - pulling threads
Then it is time to hem the front of the steuchlein, I pull threads here as well, to know where to fold. I am going to hem it with a embroidery stitch, so I pull two more threads out to guide my stitches.

steuchlein - at face
Fold the front in, scrape the edge to make it flat.

steuchlein - hem at face
Here I have a single fold hem, using the selvage. Since it will not be seen and helps holding the front together. If you want to you can just hem it as it is now and then you are done.

steuchlein - herringbone stitch 1
steuchlein - herringbone stitch 2
steuchlein - herringbone stitch 3
steuchlein - herringbone stitch 4
steuchlein - herringbone stitch 5
But as my new shirt is with black embroidery I want to use the same thread on my steuchlein as well. So I decided to hem with a herringbone stitch.
So here are some pictures to explain the stitches. I sew with a linen thread that is slightly waxed to make it easy to sew with.
Here you can understand how it helps to pull out those threads. The embroidery is the exactly the same height all over.

steuchlein - herringbone stitch at back
On the back it looks like this.

steuchlein - hemmed front
I made a star it the centre front, to make it easier to put on right.

steuchlein - finished
steuchlein -  detail
And then you are done!

steuchlein - different ways
With this steuchlein you can make a lot of different styles very easy.

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