Happy new year!
I start my new year with a tutorial on how I made my wulsthaube.

My wulsthaube is in one piece, I love that it is so simple to put on, I can even do it without a mirror (or running uphill the streets of Visby to attend 100 landsknecht march as I did 2011 medieval week), not pinning and tugging at a piece of fabric in the morning.
As I always wear a steuchlein my wulsthaube is never visible.

wulsthaube tutorial - 1
You start out with making a fabric roll. Mine is made out of a piece of linen that is 16cm wide and 44 cm long. It is cut on the bias and when it is sewn together it is stuffed with wool. You can use whatever stuffing you want to and I have also read about people using wicker wreaths padded with fabric for their wulst, I guess that it would be a good lightweight option if you want to do a super size wulsthaube.

wulsthaube tutorial - 2
Then I take a piece of fabric, I used a old linen panel curtain found thrift shopping. The size is based on the size of your wulst and it is not 100% important as you are draping your wulsthaube. I think that my fabric was somewhere between 65-85 cm long and and 50-60 cm wide. The linen is cut straight on grain so that the front will not stretch. you can also cut it on the bias to make it drape over the wulst better, but then you will need to add a strip of fabric in the front that is on straight grain before putting it on to keep the front solid.

wulsthaube tutorial - 3
I pin it in the nape of my neck (I look kind of aggressive in this picture, angryfrau!)

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Put the fabric over your head.

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And add the wulst.

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I start with pinning it at the centre top.

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Then I pull the fabric taut over the wulsthaube pinning it as I go along.

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Now you are ready to start draping.
You can do this while wearing it with the help of mirrors, having a friend wear it or as I do it, putting it on a doll.

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Remember to put pins where you pinned it at the nape of your neck.

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Put it on your trusty helper.

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And start draping.

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As you go along you can cut away some of the fabric that is hidden by the pleats, it only adds unnecessary bulk.

wulsthaube tutorial - 19
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When draping it you can decide what shape you want it to have by pulling the fabric taut in the back.

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Here you can see that I have cut away some on the inside.
But you don not want to cut it all away, as you will notice in a few step. You will need a flap to cover the raw edges in the front.
My wulst looks kind of gross, but that is what happens if you use wool that is not properly washed. You smell slightly of sheep and the wool geese leaves stains. I recommend using washed wool! ;)

wulsthaube tutorial - 23
In my finished wulsthaube, I don’t want the ends to meet in my neck, I want some space to be able to put it on tightly and the linen will probably stretch some with use.
So I remove some cm in the neck and put new pins. The pin to the right is the old pin, and the new pin is to the left.

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wulsthaube tutorial - 25
Then I cut away the excess and pin a nice hem.

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Lots of pins! I want to sew the pleats down to make them stay in place, make sure to catch more then just the outer layer of fabric. I do the same on the inside, to make it look neat.

wulsthaube tutorial - 29
As you see here I have only sewn the pleats down for about 5cm

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A flap have been naturally shaped on the inside by the draping, sew down the side of it.

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Cut away excess fabric.

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Hem the edges you pinned a few steps before.

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It is now time to fix the finishing on the outside in the back.
See the flap, make sure that it is moderately the same width all along.

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Fold it to the font and put some pins.

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Trim it down and fold under the raw edges.

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Sew it in place.

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I then add a band around the head, it is cut straight on grain and is as wide as you like. Mine is 2cm wide and just as long so that I can pin or tie it.

wulsthaube tutorial - 38
And then it is finished!
I might had wanted to have the square lower in the neck, my other wulsthaube is like that. But as it is always covered with a steuchlein that is not really a problem.

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I usually baste my wulst with big stitches to the haube, so that I can take it out and throw the haube in the washing machine after events. But you can also pin it if you want to.

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So I have spoken about my new 16th century German chemise/shirt, and I have also documented the whole process of making it so that I can show you how it is made.

This hemd goes under the name of “silly eternity hemd” because it have a rather silly amount of fabric in it, and a equally silly high collar with a ridiculous tight smock, and it really have taken an eternity to sew.
I like things silly, especially with my German outfit, and I love to work a long time on things, but I have to admit that it might be a bit to much to have 4,5 meters of fabric smocked into the collar.
It is in a thin linen fabric from medeltidsmode.se and is sewn with silk thread.
The seam allowances are felled and when done they are only 0,5 cm wide.
The embroidery is in linen thread but for a more period correct thread I would suggest silk if you want to use colour.

Print
So here is the pattern, it is in cm and not inches.
I am using the width of the fabric, using one width for the front, one for the back and half a width for each sleeve. Using 3 meters gives you enough fabric for these pieces, the sleeve gusset and for lining the collar and end of the sleeves.
In centre front, we have a slit that is cut open.
As said, to use 150cm to the font and the back might be a bit to much, so if you want to using half a fabric width, 75 cm that will turn out as a nice hemd that to.

Hemd 2
When I work in linen fabric, I like to pull threads. This ensures that I cut 100% on the grain.
Using a big needle, I pull up one thread.

Hemd 3
Pulling it out until it breaks.

Hemd 4
Hemd 5
When it breaks, you just use the needle to pull it out again and then when you have gone the full width of the fabric it will look like this.

Hemd 6
And now you can cut your fabric.

Hemd 7
Voila! 100% straight on the grain.

Print
Print
Now it is time to start sewing. You need to sew your pieces together before you smock. I have a seam allowance of 1 cm.
As you can see in this picture, you need to sew your pieces together so that they form a “tube”. Sew only down to the X mark, witch is in my hemd 31 cm down. My hemd is rather tight fitting around the armcycle, and this measurement decides this. For a looser fit you need to sew longer. Or if you are smaller you might need to have this distance shorter if you want the tighter fit. You can if you want sew just as much as you need for the smocking (15cm) and then when the smock is finished, put it over your head and pin with needles so that it fits right here.
The blue in this picture shows where my smocking is going to be.

Hemd 10
Of course I forgot to take photos of how I sewed it together, but I have these stand in pictures to show you how I sew a felled seam. It is important that the finished seam is not wider then your smock pleats, or else it will look funny and you will see the seam in your smocked collar. As my smock pleats are 0,5cm therefore my finished seam is 0,5 so that it blends in. Therefore I start out with a 1 cm seam allowance.
I sew with running stitches as there is no strain on this seam and we are also felling it witch means that it will be stronger because of that.

Hemd 11
Then I scrape the seam open with my bone tool, this is a period way of getting flat seams with out ironing them, and linen takes this treatment fabulously.

Hemd 12
Then I cut down the seam allowance on one side.

Hemd 13
Folds the other sides seam allowance in half, here I use a fingernail to scrape it down.

Hemd 14
Fold the whole thing to one side, scraping it a bit with my bone tool to make it lie flat.

Hemd 15
And then I sew it down. And that is how I make my felled seams.

Hemd 16
So let me introduce my bone tool, it is made as you all can guess out of bone. Moose bone to be exact. I have made it myself and I originally use it when working with leather, polishing the edges among other things.
But when I was reading in “Woven into the Earth: Textile finds in Norse Greenland” by Else Ostergaard there was information about tools found that was connected with textile working (pages 111-115). Among the tools were the “seam smoothers” that were used to make the seams flat. They could be made out of every kind of material, wood, bone, stone, glass, horn, it even says something about a pigs tooth.
So I thought that “well I need to try it” and said and done, and now I use my bone tool with all my linen fabric. So nice not having to use the iron all the time, especially with small seams and narrow seam allowances that you end up burning your fingertips of while working with.
But now, lets continue on our hemd.

Hemd 17
Now it is time to hem the top of your hemd, that will become your collar.
I pull a thread at 1 cm and make a double fold.

Hemd 18
Like this, here you can see my felled seam.

Hemd 19
Now we are going to make a dotted grid for the smocking. I have made a guide out of thin cardboard, this saves so much time! I am going to dot each cm with one cm between each row.
I am dotting 10 rows.

Hemd 20
Hemd 21
It is just to put it along with the hemmed edge and with a pen make a dot using the grid, This takes almost forever, remember to sharpen your pen now and then.
Yes that is about 4500 dots… yes you are crazy for doing this ;)

Hemd 22
Here you can see that I have also hemmed the slit in the front. (or at least one side of it).

Hemd 23
The end of the slit is hard to hem in a good way, and it is also a place that have a lot of strain on it. So I finished it of with some buttonhole stitches to cover the raw edge and then some stitches across to make it durable. And it is pretty to.

Hemd 24
Now it is time to sew your gathering stitches. I use a regular polyester thread in a bright colour, so that I remember to take it away later. I sew with a long double thread and pick up a few threads at each dot.

Hemd 25
Sew all the lines.

Hemd 26
Then gather your fabric and tie it of when you have gathered it to your neck circumference + some ease. Hold a measuring tape against your neck to know what you want ( mine is 44cm ).

Hemd 27
Really dense smocked fabric, ridiculously dense.

Hemd 28
Now I baste some guide threads on the front, to help me with my embroidery. They are 1cm apart.

Hemd 29
I start my embroidering with this, along the whole collar, to keep it together.

Hemd 30
Like this

Hemd 31
Then I want to have these.

And this is how you sew that stitch. If you reverse it you can sew a diamond.
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Hemd 33
Hemd 34
Hemd 35
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Hemd 38

Hemd 39
And this is how it ended up, with decorative dots in the middle. And in the bottom is honeycomb stitch.

This is how you sew it.
Hemd 40
Hemd 41
Hemd 42
Hemd 43
Hemd 44
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Hemd 47

Hemd 48
to get to the next row, skip one row.

Hemd 49
Now you just continue on like before.

Hemd 50
This is how my backside looks.

Hemd 51
And the finished front.

Hemd 52
Then it is time to line your collar. My lining is a strip of fabric that is 5cm wide finished width, and as long as my neck circumference, the measurement that we tied of the threads on.

Hemd 53
When sewing it on, be sure to catch each fold to sew it to the lining.

Hemd 54
This makes sure that your smock stays put and looks pretty.
Do not sew the front shut before you cut the thread knots of, that will make it hard do take them away.

Hemd 55
Now take your gathering threads away.

Hemd 56
And now your collar is done! I have a pearl closure.

Hemd 57
Pearls and thread loops.

Hemd 58
A close up of the hemmed slit.

Hemd 59
And the reinforcement again.

Hemd 60
Now you are going to sew the sleeve seam and the side seams. Put your hemd with your wrong sides together.

Print
And this is how you are supposed to sew. Leave 10 cm toward the X. This is were you are going to sew your sleeve gusset.

Hemd 62
Like this.

Hemd 63
Now sew your sleeve gusset.

Hemd 64
Like this.

Hemd 65
The sleeve gusset is also going t have felled seams, put it on your knee and it is easy to see when you work.

Hemd 66
Fell the seams on the sleeve and the side seam to. And hem the sleeves and the bottom hem.

Hemd 67
And now do the same thing to the sleeves as you did to the collar part. Make dots, sew dots, gather.
But here I gather against a bottle that have the same circumference as my hand. I don want to have a closure on my sleeve but I still need to be able to put it on.

Hemd 68
And do some honeycomb smocking.

Hemd 69
And then line it.

Hemd 70
Remember to not sew it shut before you remove your gathering thread.
Remove gathering threads and sew shut.

Hemd 71
Now it is done!

Hemd 72
Close up on the collar.

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Close up on bottom.

Hemd 74
This is where your first seam ends up in the end. Not visible at all when you are wearing it.

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Hemd 76
Close up on sleeve gusset.

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Finished sleeve.

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Hemd 80
The inside of the sleeve.

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Back of hemd.

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Back of collar.

Hemd 83
How the honeycomb looks.

Hemd 84
Inside of collar.

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Ruffles on the collar.

Hemd 86
As an addition to the button closure I also have a hook in the bottom of the collar, to keep in shut better, it fastens in a loop on the other side.

Hemd 87
And then a picture of me wearing the shirt.
I hope you have found this tutorial helpful.

As always I give you, my inspiration for my outfits.
Really high collars
Schneider-n-Neterin
holbein noblewoman
BRONZINO, Agnolo 1530-32
Basel_Woman_Turned_to_the_Left_Costume_Study_by_Hans_Holbein_the_Younger1520
inspiration for hemd
meyer

And also one, where I got the inspiration for the pearl closure from.
HEEMSKERCK, Maerten van 1531

I thought that I would show you how I prefer to wear my steuchlein.

wearing my steuchlein - 1
I start with putting my wulsthaube on.

wearing my steuchlein - 2
Then I throw on the steuchlein

wearing my steuchlein - 3
Oops a bit of.

wearing my steuchlein - 4
It is nice to have that star so that I know it is on straight.

wearing my steuchlein - 5
Then I tie it in the back.

wearing my steuchlein - 6
Like this.

wearing my steuchlein - 7
I throw the tail to the front to make it easy to tie it.

wearing my steuchlein - 8
Finished

wearing my steuchlein - 9
If one wanted you could always use needles here in stead, to minimize bulk.

wearing my steuchlein - 10
Then I adjust the steuchlein over the wulsthaube

wearing my steuchlein - 11
Tighten it in the back

wearing my steuchlein - 12
Hold it in place with my left hand

wearing my steuchlein - 14
The other hand twist the tail part into a tight twist.

wearing my steuchlein - 14
When you have twisted for a while, you can let go of the left hand and use it to twist, it goes faster with two hands.

wearing my steuchlein - 15
Then I put the twisted tail over my head, holding the back in place

wearing my steuchlein - 16
Like this

wearing my steuchlein - 17
The twist goes around the head.
And is tucked under itself.

wearing my steuchlein - 18
Tada! like this. At this point I usually throw my hat with ostrich feathers on.
And this is how I wear my steuchlein and here is also a sneak peak of my new 16th century German blouse

As I am in the progress of making a new shirt to my 16th century German dress, I also needed a new steuchlein to wear over my wulsthaube since my old one is in raw silk just as my old shirt. And here is how I make my steuchlein complete with a pattern diagram.

steuchlein - pattern
So here is my pattern, I put the long side against the fold of the fabric and that is also the reason that my steuchlein is 150 cm long. I use the width of the fabric. In the end it is mostly like a liripipe pattern, but without the cape part.

steuchlein - cut and ready
I use a thin linen fabric from medeltidsmode.se and sew with silk thread, because I like it and I find that the linen thread I have is a bit to thick for this fabric.

steuchlein - end on tail
Start with hemming the end of the end of the tail, I cut my selvage away here, since I do not think it is that pretty and hemming with that gets so bulky. If you have nice selvage you can just ignore the hemming part and use the selvage as it is instead.

steuchlein - small running stithces
Then I sew the long seam that forms the tail part. I sew with small running stitches, using backstitch here is in my eyes just a waste of time since there is not any strain on this seam. Running stitches will work just as good.

steuchlein - scraping seams
Then I scrape the seams so that they lie flat. This is a period way of getting your seams smooth without ironing them. This is a bone tool that I use when I work with leather, but you can use whatever you like tree, bone your fingernails. I use my fingernails when I scrape my hems.

steuchlein - at tail
In the end of the tail, I fold in the raw edges and sew a bit. So that no loose threads will poke out.

steuchlein - felled seams to here
steuchlein - felled seams
Then I fell the seams. Not all the way since most of the seam allowances is in the tail part so that felling those would be a waste of time since they do not get any wear or is ever seen. The fabric is also cut slightly on bias here, so the edges will not really fray here anyway.

steuchlein - hem at bottom
Then I hem the bottom part. As you can see here, when working in linen fabric I like to pull out threads to know where my fold lines are. This ensures that the edges are 100% on straight grain.

steuchlein - double folded hem
My hems are double folded and when finished 0,5 cm wide, thin and nice.

steuchlein - pulling threads
Then it is time to hem the front of the steuchlein, I pull threads here as well, to know where to fold. I am going to hem it with a embroidery stitch, so I pull two more threads out to guide my stitches.

steuchlein - at face
Fold the front in, scrape the edge to make it flat.

steuchlein - hem at face
Here I have a single fold hem, using the selvage. Since it will not be seen and helps holding the front together. If you want to you can just hem it as it is now and then you are done.

steuchlein - herringbone stitch 1
steuchlein - herringbone stitch 2
steuchlein - herringbone stitch 3
steuchlein - herringbone stitch 4
steuchlein - herringbone stitch 5
But as my new shirt is with black embroidery I want to use the same thread on my steuchlein as well. So I decided to hem with a herringbone stitch.
So here are some pictures to explain the stitches. I sew with a thread that is slightly waxed to make it easy to sew with.
Here you can understand how it helps to pull out those threads. The embroidery is the exactly the same height all over.

steuchlein - herringbone stitch at back
On the back it looks like this.

steuchlein - hemmed front
I made a star it the centre front, to make it easier to put on right.

steuchlein - finished
steuchlein -  detail
And then you are done!

steuchlein - different ways
With this steuchlein you can make a lot of different styles very easy.

Summer season = medieval week and a for medieval week I really need a bag for my German dress. Looking at a lot of pictures I saw a model that seemed to be used by both males and females and also used in a very varied social status.
And as I work this way: see pretty thing, make pretty thing. I just had to make myself a bag and as I like to share I also made a pattern diagram.

But first, the finished bag.

16th century German - bag
It is made in Swedish bark tanned reindeer, the lid and strap is in 3mm vegetable tanned cowhide and the red is chrome tanned goat. I usually try to stay away from the chrome tanned leather because of the chrome, but this red is just so beautiful that I can’t stop myself.

16th century German - bag back
As you can’t really make out the backside of the bags from pictures you have to make something up. I decided to use the same shape as on the lid, as that makes it both a bit sturdy, gives me something to put a inner pocket on and it looks pretty. Also when cutting leather I find that you get the most useful scrap pieces if you try to keep your work in rectangles that you then cut down. For example, the things I cut away on the lid and strap can easy be used as other straps or perhaps a bracelet.
Here you can clearly see the seam that fasten the inner pocket. The inner pocket is a modern convenience things, for a more period correct bag you should probably leave it out

16th century German - bag - lid
A close up on the lid. The button is made with a wooden core that have been covered in leather.

16th century German - bag - strap
16th century German - bag -  side strap
Something that I have not done yet is to sew the strap closed, so that you can open the bag without it slipping of your belt.

16th century German - bag - with open lid
When you open the lid you can see that it has two external pockets and a drawstring to keep it shut.

16th century German - bag - button
The button is fastened in the front piece of the bag.

16th century German - bag - button
To make sure that the button stays on, the leather that is used to cover the button is the leather that becomes the piece that is sewn on to the front piece of the bag. I also used extra long threads that I wrapped around the neck of the button to make it more secure and long lasting.

16th century German - bag - inner pocket
On the inside there is a pocket, I have no historical sources for this, but a bag needs its bag for “girl stuff”. I first sew it onto the back piece, through both lid/strap and the back piece and then sew the seams on the sides, the seams that form the pocket. Before sewing it on I also put some water on the front bit of the inner pocket, and stretched it a bit just at the front piece, this makes it easier to put stuff into the pocket, and you can see how it is slightly looser on the picture

16th century German - bag - pockets
Here we have the pockets, the pattern piece is sewn on so that it forms a pouch, my leather is a bit thick so it does not drape as well as it should, but it will become softer with use.

16th century German - bag - pocket detail
The drawstring on these pockets are well thought out, pull it open easy.

16th century German - bag - opening pocket
Put stuff inside.

16th century German - bag - closing pocket
And then pull on the long ends to shut it again.

And now on to the pattern.
The + marks where you should punch a hole, this is most practical to do just after cutting out your leather before any sewing is done. Except at the centre back were the holes should be through bot lid/strap and back piece and therefore is better to punch after you sew it on.
The dotted lines are your sewing lines, where your seams should be or where you should place your other pieces. I use a needle and punch tiny holes through the paper pattern to mark these lines.
The pockets have no seam lines as there is such a small (2mm) seam allowance, and on the front piece the dotted lines is how you should put the pocket pieces to form pouches.

16th century German - bag - overwiew

16th century German - bag - front and back
16th century German - bag - strap
16th century German - bag - pockets
16th century German - bag - inner pocket

And so, some inspirational picture as well.
Amorous_Peasants
As you can see she have only one pocket, it is shaped differently at the bottom and there is tassels.

soilder and his whife
One with a smaller lid and three pockets.

bagmaker
two other variety.

inspiration
My bag is kind of the same size as this nice girl.

It was ages ago that I made a tutorial for something and I had this one kind of laying around (in the paper version) so I thought that I should make it into a pretty Illustrator picture and upload it here with pictures of my own gollar that I made for this summer.

gollar - front open

My gollar is made out of wool and lined with rabbit fur and can be worn both with the collar down and the collar standing, it is closed with three hooks and eyes in the front.
As it is hard to take photos of your own back I bribed my sister to act as a model, she is much smaller then me so it looks a bit big on her.
gollar - front
gollar - side
gollar - back
gollar - detail
gollar - gusset detail
gollar - side open
gollar - back

Here are some inspirational pictures
Martin Schaffner 1533
gollar inspiration
gollar inspiration 2
Hans Holbein the Younger 1523
gollar inspiration 3

And finally the pattern, the measurements are in cm NOT in inches, click for bigger picture. The pattern is based on the drawings and not any extant gollar and to make make this pattern more historically correct you could choose to not have the gore in the back.
I have been made aware that the original pattern have some things that are faulty, I have now added a new pattern here where the changes are made in red. It is that the cut for the gore in the back should be 13,5 cm long, not 13 as it said before as the gore when drafted is 13,5cm long.
Also the shoulder seam on the front pattern piece is to short. Elongate as the picture shows with 2,5 cm and redraw the curve of the collar.
Sorry for any inconvenience, this was my fist pattern and I did not check the seams before posting.

gollar - pattern front NEW
gollar - pattern back NEW

As usual a toile is a good idea to make sure of the fit before you cut into fancy fabric. Good luck and happy sewing!. THae

Promise to say Hi! to me at medeltidsveckan if you see me.

moy bog - back
moy bog
moy bog - hose
kampfrau - head
kampfrau - side
kampfrau - back